Henry Ford’s experiment with efficiency wages resulted in a dramatic drop in productivity a dramatic increase in the turnover rate a reduction in the layoff rate new problems with the work force, like drunkenness and reckless driving no noticeable effects. In the country of Beluxia, the job-finding rate is 0.49 and the natural rate of unemployment is 12.5 percent. Collective bargaining agreements can be made on the firm level, industry level, and national level. These different types of bargaining differ with respect to the role that outsiders play in the bargaining process. The greater the role of outsiders, the more likely the wage is close to the equilibrium wage.
Whether a farm will attract the workers that are needed, Ortega said, depends on the size of the ranch and whether there is enough work to keep employees working. This season, when it comes to the availability of employees, Ortega said, he is again experiencing a shortage of workers. “Farmers face several challenges in 2014, including implementing the Affordable Care Act and dealing with the effects of the drought,” Martin said. Running a 50% food cost your not even in business your running a charity.
In particular, the fact that many unemployed workers were receiving benefits in excess of their usual earnings was considered problematic by many observers. This was an important factor behind the lapse in the FPUC payment at the end of July, which was expected to aid the labor market recovery by incentivizing work. Under the 1935 Social Security Act, the UI system is a federal-state partnership, administered by each state.
For employees on a wage incentive plan, the base rate is average hourly earnings. Salaried employees’ base rate is determined by converting monthly to weekly salary (divide by 4 1/3) and computing the hourly rate . All but five states have their own minimum wage, most of them higher than the national minimum.
To file a Nevada unemployment claim online, go to the NESD/Nevada unemployment website. You can file a weekly claim starting the next day on Sunday and through the following Saturday to get your benefits. The restaurant industry, of course, is very much a minimum-wage paying industry. Federal regulation is estimated to cost the American economy as much as $1.9 trillion per year in direct costs, lost productivity, and higher prices. For every one law Congress passes, the federal government issues 16 new regulations. Between fiscal year 2005 and fiscal year 2014, federal agencies published 36,457 final rules.
Unions: Do They Help Or Hurt Workers?
In addition, states are now permitted to reduce optional benefits such as dental coverage or increase cost-sharing such as requiring nursing home residents to contribute more to their costs of care. But in Florida this type of change would require the Legislature to amend state Medicaid law. Reduce the monetary eligibility requirement of $3,400 total wages in the base period. In Florida, the base period for UI is the first four of the last five completed section 1089 of the california unemployment insurance code quarters preceding the first day of a claimant’s benefit year. Because that $3,400 must have been earned recently to qualify as a wage credit, claimants who either have been unemployed for a long time or did not make much money are likely ineligible for UI. Claimants who are unemployed during the last week of benefits of their current benefit year should certify for that week of benefits at least 24 hours before filing a new claim for benefits.
The ambitions of Private sector Unions are held in balance by the natural checks of competitive business – cost control, efficiency, and accountability to stockholders. Thus these unions have a naturally competitive relationship with management, new york state dept of labor unemployment insurance requiring give and take from both sides. Then they became corrupt and only serve for the survival of the union. They could care less about their workers and are directly responsible for making going over seas an easy choice.
If the employee’s combined hours of work in a week for both employers do not result in a reduction equal to or greater than 20 percent of the usual hours of work for the employer with the short-time compensation plan, then the employee is not entitled to benefits. The department must offer an online assessment that serves to identify an individual’s skills, abilities, and career aptitude. The skills assessment must be voluntary, and the department must allow a claimant to choose whether to take the assessment. The online assessment shall be made available to any person seeking services from a regional workforce board or a one-stop career center.
Arizona All In One Labor Law Poster
The CARES Act also included an eviction moratorium in federally subsidized housing, covering between 28 percent and 45 percent of rental units across the country. While this ban helped curb evictions, it did not assist renters with accruing debt—an important factor, given that nearly one in six renters are not caught up on rent. This has particularly stark racial disparities, as one in four Black renters and one in five Latino renters are not caught up on rFent compared to just one in ten white renters.
Twenty-eight percent of respondents earning under $15 report receiving hazard pay, as did 37.1% of workers earning between $15-20. Most essential workers (70%) report that they are unable to practice social distancing at work. We discovered that both customers and employers share the blame for failure to abide by pandemic safety precautions.
On March 24, 2020, Governor Scott issued a “Stay Home, Stay Safe” order and directed the closure of in-person operations for all non-essential businesses (effective March 25-May 15, 2020). These measures swelled the ranks of the unemployed and led to abot 90,000 Vermonters filing for unemployment benefits. What is needed is to raising minimum wage, possibly with a 2-tier approach of 10 for rural and 15 for metro. Just thinking about, states should be allowed to lower down to 10 for economically depressed areas that they want to develop. Amazon does not for the most part operate in places where there are large concentrations of minimum wage workers, namely city cores and suburbs.
Until 2011, Florida provided up to 26 weeks of UI assistance for unemployed Floridians. The state decreased the duration of benefits to a maximum of 12 weeks of UI if the state’s average unemployment rate is at or below 5 percent, regardless of whether workers are able to find employment in their own community within those 12 weeks. This puts Florida 40th in the country for the average number of weeks that workers get benefits and limits the ability of the state to respond to the needs of out-of-work Floridians in counties that may have higher than average unemployment rates. Florida should increase the minimum duration of UI to 26 weeks, and eliminate the formula tying benefits to unemployment rates. Averaging the stimulus multipliers of the Earned Income Tax Credit and Making Work Pay (ARRA’s refundable tax credit for working individuals and families) gives a reasonable fiscal stimulus multiplier for the spending increase due to the increase in compensation of low-wage workers. This value is 1.2, which means that a $1 increase in compensation to low-wage workers leads to a $1.20 increase in economic activity.
Since that time, the state periodically has raised the minimum wage. Although the state’s minimum wage has never declined, it has often grown more slowly than inflation. Unlike California, current laws in 15 states and the District of Columbia establish minimum wages that automatically increase proportionally to rising prices for goods and services. Federal, state, and county governments jointly provide various health and social services to Californians. These programs include Medi-Cal, California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids , and many others.
- An Iowa claim in which the wages earned during a base period in Iowa are combined with all base period wages earned in other states to qualify for benefits or to increase the benefit amounts.
- If I file my claim and decide not to claim benefits, can my claim be canceled?
- If history is any guide, we can look to the accomplishments under the CCC and WPA, programs that were highly effective in providing socially and economically beneficial employment.
If you qualify for benefits, you can be paid a maximum of 26 weeks of unemployment insurance of your full weekly benefit amount during a full benefit year. This may change if benefits are extended by Nevada unemployment laws. In some cases, such as when the Nevada unemployment rate is high, it may be difficult to find work. The benefits are also evident for taxpayers, he says, because a much higher minimum wage means there is less need for means-tested government programs such as the Earned Income Tax Credit and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for working families. In the early 1990s, a second, more convincing wave of research began to exploit emerging variation in minimum wages across states within the US.
In addition, converting employees to non-exempt status requires an employer to set new hourly rates for the employees. If that is not done carefully, it could result in the employee receiving an unanticipated increase in compensation—perhaps a huge one— or an unexpected decrease in annual compensation. We should be talking about how to get the national minimum wage INCREASED to $10/hr+, where a young worker can still enjoy the fruit of his youth working a regular 40hr week, not whether we need to race everyone else to the bottom faster. Doing regression analyses, as economists have done, is an attempt to hold other key factors equal. And the conclusions from those studies have varied, some saying minimum wage increases lead to increases in unemployment, and some saying there’s no statistically significant correlation. Those scientific studies are easy enough to find if you want to, and you’re willing to wade through the analysis flaws.
The Dutch Balanced Employment Market Act And Other Developments In Dutch Employment Law
Notwithstanding subdivision , on and after January 1, 2016, the minimum wage for a qualifying tipped employee shall be ten dollars ($10) per hour. Existing law requires that, on and after July 1, 2014, the minimum wage for all industries be not less than $9 per hour. Existing law further requires that on and after January 1, 2016, the minimum wage for all industries be not less than $10 per hour.
ERISA also requires that plan fiduciaries (those who manage a plan’s assets) be accountable. Otherwise, these fiduciaries may be responsible for restoring losses to the plan. As additional insurance, ERISA allows participants to sue for benefits and breaches of fiduciary duty. The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of was passed to ensure that pensions offered by private industry employers met certain standards and were received by employees.
“Industry sector” means those firms that produce similar products or provide similar services using somewhat similar business processes, and are closely linked by workforce needs, within a regional labor market. The appropriate department phone number or phone numbers for individuals to contact when seeking multilingual unemployment insurance services in their preferred written or spoken language. Provide dedicated phone lines for unemployment insurance claims in the primary languages in an effort to provide consistent wait times across all phone lines and collect and review data on phone usage by limited English proficient individuals. Pursuant to standards established by the department, the employing office of a state employee or state annuitant shall possess documentation verifying eligibility of an employee’s or annuitant’s family member prior to the enrollment of a family member in a health benefit plan. The employing office shall maintain the verifying documentation in the employee or annuitant’s official personnel or member file.
States could receive incentives for improving benefit levels and extending coverage to workers in growing non-traditional forms of employment, like temporary employment services workers. Under the President’s proposal, wage insurance would replace up to half of lost wages for workers who had worked three years or more at their previous employment and make less than $50,000 in their new job. Workers could receive up to $10,000 over two years to help make ends meet through a Federally-funded program administered directly through state unemployment insurance programs. This proposal would be fully paid-for as part of the President’s broader unemployment insurance package described below. Second, minimum wages do a bad job of targeting poor and low-income families.
The administrator shall, not later than March 31 each year, notify all school employers participating in the School Employees Fund of the contribution rate for the succeeding fiscal year. The plan, assessments, and reports required by this section shall be provided consistent with the requirements of Section 9795 of the Government Code. Establish a grant program lasting at least two years to provide funding for community-based organizations to provide outreach and education to limited English proficient communities. If the individual’s language is not among the primary or additional languages, then upon the individual’s request, provide the individual with translation or oral or signed interpretation of documents in their preferred language. All education and services provided in this section shall be at free and accessible to any garment worker in the State of California. The appropriation made pursuant to paragraph of subdivision shall be applied to the unfunded state liabilities for the state employee member categories described in paragraph of subdivision that are in excess of the base amounts for the 2021–22 fiscal year.
There have been calls in recent years for the federal government to re-establish a uniform, freestanding federal minimum wage. Some have argued that this is a matter of decency and others that it is a matter of showing federal leadership . From 1965, when Part III of the Code came into force, until 1970, the federal minimum wage was specified in the Code and, as of 1971, the Governor in Council had the authority to adjust the rate through regulation. That right, the proponents argue, includes the right to join together in class and collective litigation to pursue workplace grievances in court or in arbitration. Performing Administrative Functions Commonly Performed by Employers.
Most importantly, it allows states to pass legislation affecting employer medical plans as long as those laws are more beneficial than federal law. More than nine out of ten workers are covered by OASDHI provisions, which form the base of most benefit programs. The only workers not covered are federal civilian employees in the federal retirement system , state and local government employees who have chosen not to participate, some agricultural and domestic workers, and employees of some nonprofit organizations who have not arranged coverage. The programs under this label provide retirement, survivors, and disability insurance; hospital and medical insurance for the aged and disabled; black-lung benefits for coal miners; supplementary security income; unemployment insurance; and public assistance and welfare services. In the second part of this essay, we engaged the strong theoretical arguments both for and against increasing the minimum wage with particular attention to the possible effects on workers’ well-being.
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AHCA advises that uninsured people may receive free testing from their county health department or a federally qualified health center and that “many communities provide testing for free for individuals who do not have insurance. Uninsured individuals should ask before the test whether testing is free of charge.” There are no state agency instructions on where uninsured people can receive free treatment. However, more information on possible sources for free treatment is available here. Fully utilize the funds in the Unemployment Compensation Benefits Trust Fund and invest in the UI program. As of January 1, 2020, Florida’s UI Trust Fund balance sat just over $4 billion.
UI tax rates for employersfell again on July 1, 2018, as claims continue to be lower than previous projections. Individual employers’ reduced taxable wage rates will vary according to their experience rating; however, the rate reduction will lower the highest UI tax rate from 7.7 percent to 6.5 percent. The lowest UI tax rate will see a reduction from 1.1 percent to 0.8 percent.
2021 unemployment compensation claimants can access free or reduced cost health insurance through the ACA marketplace. The Affordable Care Act Marketplace was re-opened in February 2021 to give people who need health insurance a new “special enrollment” opportunity to get covered. The 2021 American Rescue Plan eliminated or vastly reduced premiums for many people with low or moderate incomes. The American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 extends PEUC and PUA benefits through the week ending September 6, 2021. It also increases the maximum duration of PEUC benefits ($300 a week) to 53 weeks and the maximum duration of PUA to 79 weeks.
Raising the minimum wage means shifting profits from an entity that is much less likely to spend immediately to one (the low-wage worker) that is more likely to spend immediately. Thus, increasing the minimum wage stimulates demand for goods and services, leading employers in the broader economy to bring on new staff to keep up with this increased demand. How do these wage and employment dynamics in the formal and informal sectors affect poverty?
Proponents argue that a basic income that is based on a broad tax base would be more economically efficient, as the minimum wage effectively imposes a high marginal tax on employers, causing losses in efficiency. However, when minimum wage is set at the federal level, they found “notable wage impacts and large corresponding disemployment effects”. Until the mid-1990s, a general consensus existed among economists, both conservative and liberal, that the minimum wage reduced employment, especially among younger and low-skill workers. In addition to the basic supply-demand intuition, there were a number of empirical studies that supported this view. For example, Gramlich found that many of the benefits went to higher income families, and in particular that teenagers were made worse off by the unemployment associated with the minimum wage. Economists disagree as to the measurable impact of minimum wages in the ‘real world’.
Can result in the exclusion of certain groups (ethnic, gender etc.) from the labor force. Costly technology that increases business efficiency is more appealing as the price of labor increases. Increases incentives to take jobs, as opposed to other methods of transferring income to the poor that are not tied to employment . Raises family incomes at the bottom of the income distribution, and lowers poverty. Improves functioning of the low-wage labor market which may be characterized by employer-side market power .
Businesses that employ low-wage workers would face higher labor costs as a result of this measure. These businesses would respond to higher costs in several ways, including raising prices or producing goods and services with fewer low-wage workers. The measure would increase California’s minimum wage each January beginning in 2022. The annual increases would be in direct proportion to inflation reported in the CA CPI for urban wage earners and clerical workers in the prior year.
We outline a series of pandemic emergency policy fixes, followed by more fundamental shifts in the U.S. labor market, health care, and income policy. Any unemployment insurance benefits you receive are fully taxable income if you are required to file a tax return. At the time you file your claim, you may elect to have the department withhold state and/or federal tax on the benefits you receive. The department will send you a 1099-G form at the end of the calendar year showing how much in benefits you received during the previous year. You should use this form when you file your income taxes to report benefits received and any taxes withheld by the department. Questions about filing should be directed to the IRS, to the State Department of Revenue, or to a tax consultant.
“There will be a subsequent reduction in employment and income,” Fuller said at a news conference. “The state’s competitive position is weakened. Adjacent states with lower minimum wages will be able to produce goods and services for less.” When minimum wage workers have more money, since they are statistically the worst at managing and saving money, the more they spend. The companies understand that the market will return to an equilibrium in ~2 years. At that point, they don’t want to need to hire a bunch of new workers and train them.
International evidence on this topic is mixed with some studies finding reductions in working hours and others finding no significant effects (see overviews in Belman and Wolfson 2014; Low Pay Commission 2015; Neumark and Wascher 2008; Schmitt 2015). Above average increases could also be observed in low-wage sectors of which many are found in services. Table1 shows the 20 industries with the highest shares of jobs paying lower than €8.50 . Based on these top 20 sectors with the highest incidence of jobs earning less than €8.50 per hour in 2014, according to VVE data wages in Eastern Germany increased by 7 percent in 2015 compared to an average total increase in Eastern Germany of 4 percent. Wage increases for less-skilled employees in these sectors were even higher. In 2015, workers without any vocational training experienced an increase of around 13 percent, while wages for low-skilled workers increased more than 9 percent.
Along with the request for a review, the claimant can provide evidence of other wages that they have received, including unreported tips. Your recent wages are taken into consideration when calculating the amount of benefits you will receive. You will also be eligible for the additional $300 weekly FPUC benefit.
Incumbent worker training in accordance with Section 3174 of Title 29 of the United States Code. Consistent compliance with workplace laws and regulations, including proactive efforts to remedy past problems. A history of investment in employee training, growth, and development. Meet the economic, social, and environmental needs of the community. Transitional and subsidized employment, particularly for individuals with barriers to employment.
Yet, most of the empirical studies of minimum wages focus on the state and federal-level policies. The literature on the effects of city-level minimum wages is much smaller. Economists describe cyclical unemployment as the result of businesses not having enough demand for labor.As a result, companies cannot employ all those who are looking for work at that point within the business cycle. When demand for products and services drops, there tends to be a corresponding reduction in production to compensate. As the supply levels reduce, fewer employees are required to meet the lower standard of production volume. Those workers who are no longer needed are released, resulting in higher unemployment.
If workers are misclassified as independent contractors when they are actually employees, and therefore not correctly reported, there are significant penalties for failure to report wages and pay related Unemployment Insurance tax. Both parties’ plans imply big increases in the costs of employing workers. Looking at wages and employers’ National Insurance, the Conservative plan raises the cost of employing at least 2.8 million workers by 4% on average, and the Labour plan raises the cost of employing 7.1 million workers by almost 15% on average.
In either situation, you must have earned at least $400 in the high quarter. You must be willing to accept customary pay and hours in the area for your type of work, and you must be willing to immediately accept any offer of suitable work. This means you must make a good faith effort to secure employment, using methods that are reasonable and prudent for the type of work you are seeking. Specifically, you must seek work that matches your skills and abilities and apply to employers that are likely to hire someone with your talents. Any documents that you intend to submit as potential evidence for the hearing must be submitted to the Appeals Office and any opposing party at least 48 hours prior to the scheduled hearing date. This is your only opportunity to present testimony, witnesses and documentation.
The federal district court decided that such a practice discriminated against women and ordered it stopped. The nurses based their case on the Equal Pay Act and the Civil Rights Act. The former was inappropriate because the jobs compared were different. But the latter appeared to apply, because jobs dominated by women were paid less than jobs dominated by men, even though the jobs were of equal or comparable worth.
In Honduras, with a large informal sector and where almost half of formal sector workers earn below the minimum wage, a higher minimum wage led to an increase in extreme poverty along with small increases in incomes for formal sector workers near the poverty line . In Thailand, higher minimum wages have the largest positive effect on households at the lower end of the household income distribution. In this case, minimum wages have a relatively large impact on poverty; a 10% increase in minimum wages reduces poverty by 2.5 percentage points . For example, when minimum wages are low relative to average wages , they tend to raise the wages of workers at the bottom of the wage distribution , . But when minimum wages are high relative to average wages (as in Colombia, Honduras, and sub-Saharan Africa), they will increase the wages of workers in the middle but not at the bottom of the wage distribution. In this case, higher minimum wages will only affect those whose wages are high relative to average wages .
She is a recent graduate of a Master of Public Affairs degree at Indiana University. Ellie has a varied background, including having earned her bachelor’s degree in journalism, served as a finance assistant on a congressional campaign, and worked as a policy intern at a juvenile justice nonprofit. She is interested in how government programs such as unemployment insurance and Medicaid can be improved to make a difference in people’s lives. If, in this summer interim, the remaining federal benefits for those without jobs pressures some employers to increase wages and offer more full-time hours to their employees, then that is all to the good for them and the sturdiness of our economy. The good news for workers is that wages tend to be “sticky” and hard to reverse. Sadly, employers are aware of this too, and many are offering signing bonuses and other perks instead of increasing wages.
We find that 33 percent of uninsured workers earn within $3 of the minimum wage, putting them at risk of unemployment if their employers were required to offer insurance. Assuming an elasticity of employment with respect to minimum wage increase of ‐0.10, we estimate that 0.2 percent of all full‐time workers and 1.4 percent of uninsured full‐time workers would lose their jobs because of a health insurance mandate. Workers who would lose their jobs are disproportionately likely to be high school dropouts, minority, and female. The introduction of the statutory minimum wage in 2015 resulted in a significant increase of hourly wages at the bottom of the wage distribution scale.
And if they are getting more, then somebody else must be getting less. We would like to have some way of thinking about the effects of the minimum wage on the distribution of income. James is an architect who has been laid off owing to a slump in the demand for property. He feels he will have to wait until the economy picks up before he can get a new job. Eric is an experienced project manager who lost his job at a tech start-up because the company’s product failed to become popular. He is confident he can get a new job and has already rejected a number of offers.
With an unemployment rate of just 2.1%, it’s the easiest state to find work in. In fact, just 7,245 people are unemployed in the Green Mountain State. Around 3.4% of adult males and the same percentage of adult females in the US are unable to find work, according to data on the US unemployment rate. Additionally, 12.8% of teenagers who are capable and willing to work can’t find employment. After 2008’s financial crisis, the American people had a difficult period to face.
DEO also says that workers who filed a claim on or after April 5, 2020, but who have been given a monetary determination of “Ineligible,” should check CONNECT for a message to apply for PUA. RA work-search and work registration requirements reinstated on May 30, 2021. Persons filing an application for RA benefits beginning March 15, 2020, are not required to complete work registration in Employ Florida through May 29, 2021. In addition, work search requirements for individuals requesting benefits for the weeks beginning March 15, 2020, were also reinstated on May 30, 2021. Don’t require repayment of overpayments in cases of “equity and good conscience.” Workers should not be penalized for accidental state overpayments when fairness demands otherwise. The state should consider the claimant’s health and earning capacity, their number of dependents, family income, and expenses.
Walsh-Healy also requires covered employers to pay overtime at one and a half times the base rate for all hours in excess of 8 in a day or 40 in one workweek, whichever is greater. As implied in our discussion of minimum wages, employees who are exempt from minimum-wage provisions are exempt from overtime provisions. Employers may, of course, pay overtime to these exempt employees but are not required to do so.
This situation facilitates honest mistakes on the part of businesses, but also fraud. The IRS criteria for independent contractor status are publicized; other areas of regulation such as health and safety or workers’ compensation may use a slightly different definition. This occurs because the criteria for “employee” are established to suit the implementation of particular regulations. Court decisions significantly drive the updating and implementation of these criteria.
The “Other” category combines groups that had small sample sizes, including Asian, Pacific Islander, and American Indian. We needed food, postal delivery, firefighters, warehouse workers, and hospital cleaning staff before the pandemic. What also became clear during the pandemic is the fundamental class divide between those who could work from home and those who could not.
Because cyclical unemployment can spiral out of control, the federal government must usually step in to stop it. The first and easiest response is with expansionary monetary policy. Seasonal unemployment occurs as demands shift from one season to the next. This category can include any workers whose jobs are dependent on a particular season. Official unemployment statistics will often be adjusted or smoothed, to account for seasonal unemployment. For example, construction workers tend to work less during the cold months.
From the government’s perspective, such a hard-line is necessary to show their resolve on Saudization. The country’s firms already enjoy a fairly significant advantage by not having to pay taxes, so the government sees it as reasonable —and essential for the Kingdom’s long-term stability — to take a stand against those who also refuse to hire Saudi nationals. Until the 1970s, the overwhelming majority of truck drivers in the Kingdom were Saudi nationals. Over the ensuing decades they have been gradually replaced by workers from some of the poorer parts of the Indian subcontinent, or often the Horn of Africa.
Unions function by negotiating with employers to create a collective agreement that applies to all union members and typically lasts for a set time period. Structural unemployment is caused by mismatches between the skills offered by potential employees and those sought by employers. Frictional unemployment is caused by an inability for workers and employers to find each other immediately.
France culture has produced high fashion that only a fringe group of 0.005% of the population could possibly care about. That’s because America and England have actually been culturally and economically important on a world wide scale. The only people who care about French culture are pretentious, Eurocentric goons. Maybe if people like you get your way we can all live at the same squalid level that the Cubans settle for. High unemployment is less worrisome if a strong social safety net is in place. You can have both advanced culture and braindead economic policies that cause 20%+ unemployment.
It’s a tried and proven method of winning votes and keeping people’s eyes off of the underlying issues. A minimum wage increase will get peoples’ heads above water long enough for them to get enough oxygen to live through the next dunking. They serve to do nothing to fix the root issues, and may actually harm us more in the long run. Minimum wage increases have only served to buy temporary calm from the people of this nation.
How about restaurants, which will be asked to cope not only with a shift to a high minimum wage but also with the elimination of the tipped minimum? The food-service industry, battered by the coronavirus recession, is among the most vocal protesting Joe Biden’s proposed policy, arguing that both of those changes would put many restaurants out of business. A large body of research has upended the old consensus that higher minimum wages necessarily reduce employment. One recent survey, for instance, examined 138 minimum-wage hikes at the state level and found essentially no effect on payrolls. The open question is how high is too high, Arindrajit Dube, a co-author of that paper and a professor at UMass Amherst, told me. “It’s a slam-dunk case that a $15 minimum wage would be devastating to low-wage workers in much of the country, even after the economy has fully recovered from the pandemic recession,” Michael Strain, an economist at the right-of-center American Enterprise Institute, has argued.