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Does A Dog Bite At A House Mean You Can File An Insurance Claim?


My negligence led to some of the biting incidents and I would have paid expensive dog bite liability claims if the victims weren’t so close. I neither followed the unspoken rules nor adhered to strict liability laws governing dog ownership in my jurisdiction. Fortunately, close family members were always the victim of my own dog. Another organization that publishes annual dog bite statistics is the United States Postal Service , many of who’s letter carries has been represented by Baker and Oring LLP over decades. On May 15, 2013, the USPS reported nearly 5,900 dog attacks on letter carriers during 2012.

Suppose your policy doesn’t offer to reimburse expenses for a pet that injures somebody or causes damage. In that case, you may be able to buy additional coverage or get an animal liability dog bite liability insurance policy to make sure you’re covered. There is a good chance your renters insurance offers liability coverage for your pet, but you’ll want to check the policy before buying it.

If you purchase one of these policies, speak with your local agent to confirm it covers accidents caused by dogs. The ideals upholding these laws is that pet owners should be responsible for the damages and injuries their canines cause. Generally, the dog owner is financially responsible, even if they didn’t know their pet posed a danger to other people or pets. A few states have less strict statutes, because they take into consideration conditions that may be under the owner’s control, for example, when their pet roams without supervision. We all know how valuable your time is, so why spend it doing all the hard work yourself?

In these situations, they can attack a family member and bite him with a tremendous force of about 320 PSI. Bullmastiff is a great pet and can be very confident and fearless. That could turn into aggression against the family member the canine thinks is more threatening.

  • However, dog and/or animal exclusions may render the homeowner’s insurance inapplicable.
  • If you can’t get this coverage through a homeowners or renters insurance, you can also try to get a separate policy or supplemental rider that specifically covers dog attacks and dog bites.
  • Florida residents rank second nationwide for the number of dog bite claims.
  • Or they drop coverage or raise premiums if a customer’s dog attacks and injures someone.
  • The annual event’s sponsors recommend that prospective or current dog owners check their homeowners or renter’s insurance policy to make sure it covers liability for dog bites and related injuries.

Given that, if you already have a homeowners policy, read it over if you’re thinking of getting a dog. If it’s not clear, contact your agent or someone else at your insurance company. texas liability auto insurance There are plenty of examples out there of insurance companies canceling a homeowner’s coverage after it found out they had a dog of a blacklisted breed and didn’t report it.

Homeowners insurance that covers dog bite liability tends to limit coverage somewhere between $100,000-$300,000. You’ll need to review your specific policy to be extra super-duper sure you’re covered, though. Understanding your dog bite liability coverage as both a homeowner and a dog owner is crucial, especially if you plan to host company at your place. Though no one wants to think about their beloved pets causing their human counterparts harm, the good news is that homeowners insurance can provide coverage for dog bite liability. A dog liability insurance policy can cost as little as $10 per month from providers like for policies with between $10,000 and $30,000 of coverage and a deductible of $250 to $2,500. Furthermore, the amount of coverage your homeowner’s policy provides for dog bites is subject to your policy’s liability limits.

The Verdict On Dog Liability Insurance

She says there are not many circumstances where coverage would be denied, but those that will be have to do with whether a dog is not well-socialized or has been a police dog. NerdWallet strives to keep its information accurate and up to date. This information may be different than what you see when you visit a financial institution, service provider or specific product’s site. All financial products, shopping products and services are presented without warranty.

Note that strict liability dog bite statutes are not the same in every state that has one of these laws on the books. Some states only apply strict liability to bites that occur on public property, or to particular kinds of claimants . Strict liability for dog bites in our state means that it does not matter how careful the dog owner was. If the person’s dog bit you and you were not within one of the exceptions, the owner has to pay all of the damages you incurred because of the dog attack. If you own a dog that’s on an insurance company’s aggressive breed list, the insurer will likely include a clause in the policy that excludes your pet from coverage. Premiums for umbrella insurance are generally less expensive than homeowners and renters policies.

Things To Consider Before Getting A Dog

ANIMAL WATCH-In 2020, over 5,800 USPS mail carriers were victims of dog attacks and California was #1 in the nation, with 782 of those bites. That was almost double the number in Texas — the #2 state — with 402. We found it surprising that for a majority of people, they would only press charges if the bite resulted in medical bills. Even if authorities can witness and cite the dog owner for violations, it’s usually just a small monetary fine. If surgery was required — as it often is for attacks involving facial and bone injuries — a victim’s first night in care can easily reach $20 thousand dollars.

Dog Bites Insurer – Insurance Journal

Dog Bites Insurer.

Posted: Mon, 16 May 2016 07:00:00 GMT [source]

It is very possible that your insurer has excluded that, which means you won’t be covered if your four-legged friend causes property damage or hurt someone. CDC is a Center for Disease Controls and Prevention which provided information about fatal human attacks in the U.S. These cdc dog bite statistics will show you which breeds of pups employers liability insurance were involved in the human attacks that were fatal, from 1979 to 1998. While they show certain breeds of canine, bear in mind that this data collection doesn’t indicate that neither the Edgar Snyder Associates nor CDC support breed specific legislation. Rottweilers are very active breed, and they can be annoyed and bored easily.

Public Liability Claims Legal Process In Relation To Dog Bites

Attacks by pit bulls are associated with higher morbidity rates, higher hospital charges, and a higher risk of death than are attacks by other breeds of dogs. The average cost per claim nationally has risen 134 percent from 2003 to 2019, due to increased medical costs as well as the size of settlements, judgments and jury awards given to plaintiffs. Homeowners insurers paid out $854 million in liability claims related to dog bites and other dog-related injuries in 2020. For the past fifteen years, maulings resulting in trauma level injuries and deaths have been completely unstudied by the CDC despite repeated requests for creation of a new task force to study current data.

Activists Say Racist Legacy Tainting Insurer Attitudes Toward ‘Dangerous’ Dog Breeds – Claims Journal

Activists Say Racist Legacy Tainting Insurer Attitudes Toward ‘Dangerous’ Dog Breeds.

Posted: Mon, 21 Jun 2021 07:00:00 GMT [source]

The dog “owners” include anyone who has physical possession or control over the dog. While there are some breeds on the list that are stereotypically seen as aggressive, such as Pit Bulls, Rottweilers and Dobermans, there are a few hounds in the top 10 that might surprise you. Our experienced attorneys at Torgenson Law are here to help you assess your accident claim to help determine which statute of limitations is relevant.

Most homeowners policies provide $100,000 to $300,000 in liability coverage, but that figure is much lower for Renters Insurance. And if the claim exceeds the limits of the policy, the dog owner is responsible for any damages above that amount, including legal expenses. Dog bite insurance can help protect owners from legal costs associated with what might happen if a pet gets scared and inadvertently bites another person or dog.

Tenant Usually Liable For A Dog Bite

If you have a dog and there is any doubt as to whether or not you are covered from its actions, contact one of our insurance professionals. We can review and explain what you presently have, and how best to close any loopholes. As independent agents, we can review the policies from any insurance provider. We can also search to find you the coverage you need at a price you can afford.

Both pet owners and pet lovers alike should be aware of these changes, and both parties should take steps to mitigate the risk of any dog bite or dog attack in virtually every setting where a dog is present. An increasing number of insurance companies have breed-specific exclusions for breeds of dogs known to be overrepresented in bite statistics, including Rottweilers, pit bulls and German Shepherds. In some cases, insurers are offering a “one-bite exclusion.” That is, the insurer will cover a homeowner the first time a dog bites, but not the second time. Insurers are also offering plans where they will only cover a dog if it has undergone behavioral training or is restrained by a leash or with a muzzle. Increasingly, homeowner insurance plans aren’t offering coverage of dog bites at all.

Be sure to follow the steps recommended by the CDC and below to reduce the risk of infection and get the help that the victim needs. To learn more about the legislation for dog bites in your state, you can find the statue here. We surveyed 2,000 Americans to get a picture of how people would react to getting bit by a dog. To our surprise, only 14% of Americans would press charges against the owner if a dog bit them. For others, it depends on the circumstances if they would press charges or not. The temperament test is BS by the way – it ranks pits against other pits and the passing criteria is different based on the breed being tested.

This may be true because dogs are a metaphorical “extension” of their owner. Nearly all dog bite victims suffer psychological injury, including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Each time a victim walks down a sidewalk, strolls through a park or visits a dog owner’s home, the trauma returns.

Make sure there is someone who can control the dog other than the driver. There are devices that will make traveling with your dog safer for both of you; check in local pet stores. Dogs and their owners should get training by a professional dog trainer so that the owner can optimize control of the dog if a difficult situation should arise. If you really really want to create a safety net, it can be useful to take out pure surgery cost insurance to get at least part of the expensive surgery costs reimbursed.

Three California cities were on the USPS top dog attack city rankings; Los Angeles was #1, followed by San Francisco at #5 and Sacramento at #9. The rankings were not surprising since California has more people than any other state and, potentially, more pet dogs. After these initial steps, contact a Seattle personal injury attorney as soon as you can. Your attorney can investigate your case and protect you against accusations of liability from the owner, developing a compelling case in your favor.

While some insurers don’t inquire about the type of breed or track the dogs involved in these incidents, that is beginning to change. We’re sorry, but damage to your own belongings and to those living with you in your home, such as your family, is not covered. We’re sure you are both in deep shock and need attention quickly.

If a “dangerous dog” overcomes an owner’s attempts to restrain it and kills a person, the owner may also be charged with a misdemeanor, in addition to facing civil penalties. The law defines a serious injury as one that causes death, serious disfigurement, or the “protracted impairment” or loss of any body part or body organ. SmartFinancial Insurance is a digital insurance comparison engine, providing real-time rates and insurance services in all 50 states through its relationships with carrier and agency partners. Keep up your pet’s annual checkups– Dogs who are in pain are more likely to bite. Make a veterinarian gives your pet a good physical to check for any physical problems.

What I mean by liability insurance is the insurance product that gives you protection against claims arising from damages and injuries to other people or their property. It covers any legal payouts and costs you may be responsible for, if you’re found liable. Any type of liability insurance will only pay third party, but will not pay the policy holder. Washington is a strict liability state when it comes to dog bites.

Moreover, movement by an unfamiliar person into the personal space of an aggressively prone dog, or perhaps a stimulus not perceivable to a human (for example, a wi-fi signal) might frighten some dogs. On the other hand, some dogs might act protectively in the presence of their owner, a trait not uncommon in dogs with protective tendencies such as Boerboels. Moreover, in a crowded restaurant, a large dog could injure a person by knocking the person down or jumping on a person.

A homeowner’s association has an essential duty to keep its streets and common areas safe and secure. It may incur liability if a dog bites someone in its common areas or on the street. Commonly, the HOA’s Board of Directors drafts covenants placing “reasonable restrictions” on a homeowner’s ability to house a dangerous dog in an effort to protect the HOA from liability. Photographs and videos can be important evidence of dog owner negligence. Try to get photographs and video of the dog running loose, holes in the owner’s fence, or anything else that shows the dog wasn’t properly restrained. Take pictures of your injuries right after the attack and throughout your recovery.

For instance, if a pet owner builds a fence to contain their dog, but the dog escapes and bites someone, they aren’t excused of liability because they took measures to contain the dog. Any city or county that has a notification and appeal procedure with regard to determining a dog within its jurisdiction to be dangerous may continue to utilize or amend its procedure. Such pen or structure shall have secure sides and a secure top, and shall also provide protection from the elements for the dog. “State Farm does not ask what breed or type of dog a person owns when writing policies,” says Heather Paul, a spokesperson for the nation’s largest home insurer, and the owner of two pit bulls. Uninformed consumers aren’t aware that their dog choice could affect their homeowners insurance.

In Alabama, a dog owner is strictly liable for any injury that occurs to a dog bite victim. A dog bite victim has the right to be compensated for any injury that is sustained and can recover under Alabama’s dog bite statute Alabama Code 1975 Title 3. Under this statute, a dog owner is liable for dog bites when another person is bitten on the dog owner’s property or when the dog in question chases the victim off of the dog owner’s property. However, if the dog owner had no knowledge of the dog’s dangerous propensity, then the dog owner will only be liable for the actual damages that the victim incurred.

The news item was about a 61-year-old woman who was attacked in Eltham, St Ann by two Pitt Bulls while she was on her way to work. She suffered injuries to her head, legs, thighs, and eye, and was hospitalised for two days. The gates to the premises where the owner of the dogs allegedly lives were left open. Though the above list of what liability insurance covers is pretty extensive, there are still things that are limited in your liability policy. Common issues such as broken bones, trips, falls and structural damage to someone else’s home are the most likely accidents you’ll submit a liability claim for. There’re a variety of less common accidents that can occur in your home, and your liability coverage should be fit to cover them.

Unfortunately, most homeowners or renters insurance companies will not take specific circumstances into account and will refuse coverage to any owner whose dog has a bite or aggression history, no matter what the breed. One of the most common reasons is because most major insurance companies have a list of so-called “dangerous” dogs that they won’t cover in their homeowners insurance, even if the dog has no bite history. These “dangerous dog” lists commonly include breeds like pit bulls, Staffordshire terriers, Doberman pinschers, Rottweilers, Great Danes, German shepherds, Alaskan huskies, and wolf hybrids. You can get umbrella insurance for coverage when your policy limits are exhausted, or for claims that are excluded by other homeowners liability policies. Umbrella insurance covers injuries, property damage, certain lawsuits, and personal liability situations.

For more information, contact a Seattle dog bite lawyer at Colburn Law today. Insurance usually covers the cost, but not everyone carries liability insurance, and some policies don’t cover all dogs. According to the Insurance Information Institute’s Dog Bite Liability report, the average dog bite payment was $33,230 in 2016. When the victim is a child, sometimes Medicaid will cover the medical expenses for a dog bite. It is up to the parents to apply and try to get Medicaid coverage. Insurance plans have certain deadlines and requirements of coding procedures that they use as an excuse to kick back claims and refuse to pay them.

The costs of owning a pet can add up quickly between food and grooming, not to mention apartment pet fees and unexpected vet bills. And depending on the type of pet you have, you might even have a harder time getting approved for homeowners insurance. As an experienced insurance company, we understand the risks your industry faces and have created coverages to meet each one. Our specialists will work with you to ensure you get the pet trainer insurance you need and the peace of mind you deserve as a dog trainer. We know how hard you’ve worked to get it started and make it successful. Whether you run it from home or have a facility, our pet trainer insurance can ensure your personal property and any property in your care is protected with the right coverages to help if a disaster strikes.

Determine the breed of the dog, and, if possible, whether it has a past history of aggression. Also, it’s useful for legal purposes if you can collect as much information as possible, at the scene and afterwards. If you’ve been injured, a friend or family member might help do this. Unlike other relatively large dogs, such as golden retrievers or Irish wolfhounds, Boelboels are huge and powerful. The breed was developed for territorial defense and hunting in South Africa in the mid-1800s. In recent years, this breed has become a popular in the United States.

We offer coverage for animal damage to buildings and your business’ personal property if it’s caused from a dog, cat or bird in your care. Data breach insurance can help you respond to a breach if confidential information gets lost or stolen. A major injury could require the victim to seek expensive treatments. Another huge factor that can influence a person’s case is the statute of limitations. Different states have different regulations, yet it is advisable to hire a dog bite lawyer as soon as possible. If the client misses out on filing a case within the time frame, the case can be thrown out effortlessly.

During your regular inspections, check for any animal “invasions” including nests, debris and waste created by insects, birds, rodents or other animals. Stay on top of repairs before animals have a chance to damage the structural integrity of your property or become a health hazard to your tenant. Children and Adults should always the owner for permission before they pet a dog.

“Sticking to one company for home, auto and umbrella gives you discounts. It also makes the process simpler in the case of a lawsuit, since you will not have two separate companies handling two portions of your coverage.” Most of you don’t know if any of those insurance policies cover dog bites, the loose change in your car or the valuables beneath a foot of water in the basement. Auto insurance, homeowners insurance and renters insurance don’t always cover everything that happens to your car or home. If the person who was bitten did not need medical attention, then a claim may not be necessary. If the bite doesn’t result in any injury, then the insurance carrier may not have you file a claim at all. Because dog bites have a high risk of infection, you need to see a doctor as soon as possible to clean the wounds.

Once you take on a caregiving role, you may assume the same level of liability as the actual owner of the dog. To guard against liability for these sorts of incidents, smart landlords have clear car insurance liability coverage dog policies and adequate insurance policies to cover tenant injuries. A dog bite injury lawyer who is experienced in handling dog bite cases is essential where dog sitters are involved.

Perhaps the reason that Florida ranks second nationwide in the number of dog bite insurance liability claims is that Florida law protects victims of dog bites. Florida is a state that holds the pet owner liable in all dog bite cases unless an affirmative defense applies. If you’re a victim, don’t make the mistake of assuming that you can’t work with a Tampa dog bite lawyer to recover for your injuries.

If your dog bites someone while it’s in your car, as when a child reaches in to pet your dog, then the liability portion of your automobile policy would probably pay. However, if you had control of your animal and a misinterpretation or incident occurs causing your dog to bite, you may be covered even if you were off the property. Even the best dogs aren’t immune to get involved in a serious blunder or mix-up. No matter how amicable or mannerly your dog regularly is, dog-bite incidents can transpire in a matter of seconds.

Let’s say your dog plays a little too rough with the sitter while you’re away and the sitter gets a cut on their arm. Luckily, you made the smart choice of selecting a renters policy with dog liability coverage, so your financial future looks much more secure. Most people would ask if a case of the dog bite will affect their home insurance policy. The premium of the insurance policy can increase and there might be a chance of non-renewal of the policy. While renters insurance covers a lot its dangerous to assume that it protects you for everything under the sun.

Instead, your home insurance policy will help you with liability and medical payments that can protect you from expensive bills associated with dog bites and other injuries or damages caused by your pet. Certain breeds of dogs aren’t the only ones included or excluded in a renters insurance policy. Most renters insurance policies exclude exotic animals, farm and saddle animals. If you need coverage for these types of pets, you’ll need a supplemental policy. The carrier may include a generic exclusion of any reptile, fowl, or any animal with hooves within your renters insurance policy. In most states, dog owners are not liable to trespassers who are injured by a dog.

It can help cover your personal belongings from theft and damage due to covered perils, and it also can help cover personal liability if you are found at-fault for another’s injuries. Often times insurance companies will offer a much smaller amount of money than they should, because they know that most people don’t know the true value of your case. A dog bite lawyer will make sure you get what you deserve and that the insurance company will not take advantage of you. An umbrella policy is personal liability insurance that fills in the gap for claims that might be over and above what your regular renters (or homeowner’s) policy covers. You’d want to have this type of policy so that you’d have enough liability insurance to cover all your assets and you won’t lose everything in a lawsuit. The more likely it is that you might get sued, consider getting this additional coverage.

Chihuahuas and cocker spaniels account for a high percentage of dog bites, but they’re not typically thought of as dangerous. Restricted/excluded dog breeds are pretty consistent from state to state. The average cost per dog bite claim in the U.S. as of 2018 was around $39,000.

The first number is the maximum amount of coverage they will provide per person for an incident. At American Family Insurance, we love pets and understand that they’re part of your household. That’s why we want to make sure you understand exactly how your dog affects your homeowners insurance and ensure that you have the proper protection in place not only for your home, but for your dog, too.

The incident instilled in me a healthy respect for dogs and their teeth. Now that we know all the details behind the certain coverage plans and add-ons, what exactly are you protecting yourself from? Essentially, you’re protecting yourself from having to pay for damages done to others.

In 2020, the cost rose to $50,245, according to the Insurance Information Institute. In 2020, homeowners insurers paid out $854 million in liability claims related to dog bites and other dog-related injuries, up from $571 million in 2015. The average cost per claim nationally has risen more than 162 percent from 2003 to 2020. However, certain dog breeds are considered higher-risk than others to most insurers.

However, the Center for Disease Control dog bite statistics show that the disease has been eliminated from the USA. On average, there are 1–2 deaths caused by dog bite-related injuries in Canada every year. With over 900 million dogs around the globe, incidents are bound to happen.

Einhorn Insurance does NOT agree with the way most insurance companies stereotype strictly by a dog’s breed. We look at each dog individually and do not judge based on breed. For example if your elderly pet has an accident on a carpet owned by the landlord this wouldnt be covered by renters insurance. Many renters insurance policies do not cover exotic pets such as reptiles amphibians and ferrets. Pet Insurance can help your pet get the best veterinary care available when they need it by reducing the financial burden of unexpected medical costs due to illness or injuries. Most dog breeds are covered by renters insurance personal liability protection.

That’s why states have introduced legislation to address the consequences of dog bites. We hope that this list of dog bite statistics has shown you that dog bites aren’t that common, and the reasons that may lead to a dog attack make this image much less frightening. One of the possible reasons for this increase is that people may have become more aware that medical professionals should check their injuries, as per dog bite statistics by breed for the UK.

This type of policy is intended to fill the gaps that may be left by your homeowners insurance. Dog liability insurance policies are especially popular with people who own breeds the insurance companies have deemed as dangerous and for people with dogs who have a history of biting or causing damage. Insurance virtually never covers your liability for injuries that you intentionally cause to another person. To rein in costs, many home insurance companies have lists of banned dogs—cases where the insurer won’t provide coverage if a customer owns the breed.

The best thing you can do to prove liability in a dog bite case is to take pictures and videos. That includes capturing photos or video of the bite marks, the dog, and evidence around the scene of the incident. It is essential to document this evidence as soon after the attack as possible to avoid tampering.

For instance, if your friend gets knocked down by your dog and breaks an ankle, your medical payments coverage can pay for their hospital bills, up to your policy’s limit. It isn’t just for aggressive dogs; your dog’s leash could trip someone causing them to fall and bump their head or break a bone. We provide a FREE quote – just go to the website and click on “GET A FREE QUOTE.” When considering an umbrella policy, however, confirm that it provides coverage for an accident caused by your dog because some umbrellas do not. South Carolina has a strict-liability statute that holds dog owners responsible for damages suffered by a person who is bitten or attacked. The dog bite victim does not have to prove that the owner knew or should have known that the dog was prone to attack.

Though you may never expect to be sued for things like medical coverage, lost wages or death benefits, having to handle those things on your own can make that “what if” much more terrifying. Luckily, as liability insurance is standard in most home insurance policies, you don’t have to go at it alone. Insurance companies have seen a thing or two in their time protecting customers, so they’re well equipped to offer financial protection in unique situations. It’s common to see policy limits set at $100,000 for a traditional homeowners insurance policy. However, since legal and medical fees can easily add up, you may want to increase your coverage amount to make sure you’re properly protected.

If your dog is injured in an attack by another dog then your Petplan dog insurance policy will cover you. Petplan may take action against the owner of the other dog on your behalf if we feel the other dog owner can be proved legally liable. Additionally, the bite doesn’t have to occur in your home to be covered by homeowners insurance. Dog bites caused by your pet that are found to be your fault are covered almost anywhere they happen. However, there are situations where your insurer won’t pay for bite injuries.

Covers liability claims due to damage to rented or borrowed items. Super friendly English speaking customer service, a rarity in Germany, and really good for expats who are still learning the language. Customer service was responsive throughout the whole period and made the processing, although a bit long, a very pleasant experience. Also probably the easiest insurance company I’ve ever had to deal with. Your dog has no clue about how much you like to borrow or rent stuff like furniture and cars. We do and cover financial claims for damages to rented goods up to 5.000 Euro.

I am a senior editor at Forbes, covering legal affairs, corporate finance, macroeconomics and the occasional sailing story. I was the Southwest Bureau manager for Forbes in Houston from 1999 to 2003, when I returned home to Connecticut for a Knight fellowship at Yale Law School. Before that I worked for Bloomberg Business News in Houston and the late, great Dallas Times Herald and Houston Post. While I am a Chartered Financial Analyst and have a year of law school under my belt, most of what I know about financial journalism, I learned in Texas.

If you have not done so already, speak with your lawyer to discuss your legal options. Its dog liability policies cover all breeds and all dogs, even those with a previous history of aggression. Dog owners are required to complete an application on what type of fencing is used and how much public exposure the dog receives. As you research dog bite insurance, you will notice that it is not only dependent upon breed but also location. According to the Insurance Information Institute, states with a “one-bite rule” hold a dog owner responsible if they knew about their dog’s predisposition to violence .

As in New York, the owner must take additional precautions and faces increase liabilities if the dog has a history of aggressive or dangerous behavior. What if the dog was adopted by the owner from a shelter, and the owner didn’t know that the dog had a history of biting or aggressive behavior in the shelter? Even if a dog isn’t considered dangerous in the eyes of the law, the owner can still be held responsible if the victim can prove that the owner was negligent. For example, if the dog wasn’t leashed or kept in a secure enclosure and the dog ran off and bit someone, the victim could have grounds to sue the owner. This article looks at pet owner liability in the tri-state area of New York, New Jersey and Connecticut.

Date: August 16, 2021

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