Could you please advise if its wise to buy the group health insurance from SBI General instead of Apollo/Max Bupa for my parents(father – 65 and mother 53)? As a back up I am having 2 Lakh floater from NIC Group health from my organization. My plan is to move out from this once the 4 year waiting period gets over in SBI. Please comment on the service by Icare and claim settlement ratio.
It offers a variety of customized products and plans related to motor, health, travel, and commercial to meet every customer’s needs. In the table given below, we’ve enlisted all 29 health insurance companies in India. You can refer to this table while selecting an insurance provider for yourself.
Employees can add spouses, children, and domestic partners to their plans and pay part of these costs through payroll contributions. Walmart has some other attractive elements in its benefits package, too, such as education assistance for training, degrees, or certificates relevant to retail work. It also offers bonuses for employees based on store performance, granted to both full- and part-time employees. In fact, 37% of employers report they set a minimum 30 hours per week to receive health insurance, and 25% set the bar at 20 hours per week, according to the International Foundation of Employer Benefit Plans. They offer healthcare plans to satisfy the needs of individuals, groups, companies, and the public sector in Nigeria.
The Voyager Choice policy provides coverage for trips outside the U.S. to travelers who are 95 or younger and already have a U.S. health insurance policy. There are quite a few good health insurance companies that offer coverage for small businesses. These include Aetna, United Health Care, Blue Cross Blue Shield, Humana and just about every other major carrier.
But remember that the sum insured is the maximum limit under the policy. Dental & Optical Care – There is no such medical insurance in Dubai that looks after your dental and optical care. However, some medical insurance provides the emergency dental protection only if you are paying additional premiums.
Popular Health Insurance Companies http://t.co/FDcD7nFh
— Simon Camacho (@SimonC46) November 15, 2011
As a company that’s dedicated to giving consumers unbiased and carefully reviewed financial product recommendations, it is vital for us to understand each insurance company and their products inside and out. Through our research, we found ways to compare each insurer fairly and see which companies stand out from the competition. A great insurance company is one that not only offers fair pricing to its consumers, but also one that doesn’t cheat policyholders out of coverage. They are quick to address consumer needs, be it a new benefit or faster and easier claim submissions.
Florida Blue is a division of Blue Cross Blue Shield that has been operating in Florida since 1944. They work with customers to connect them with high-quality health care professionals in their area. The average premium for family insurance coverage is about $1,168 a month. They work with over 9 million customers and can customize treatment options that allow customers to choose doctors based on their specific history and bios.
Then I twisted my right knee badly and I needed a total knee replacement, so I called to find out an estimate of coverage. I was told by one rep to pay for it (between $15,000 to $40,000), then file for reimbursement and see what I get. After about 3 months of research I got the pricing down to $12,000 + hospitalization when LHS decided to assign me a patient advocate. I gave her the information that I had collected and a month later she called me back to give me back the information that I had given her.
This insurance company does not exclude pre-existing cancer condition as their aim is to give the insurer right care at right time. Mexico has a wide range of insurance companies that, for a monthly premium, will provide you with private health coverage. In the event that you or a member of your immediate family are taken ill or suffer an accident, the insurance company will cover the medical fees. Always pick a health insurance provider that has a high claim settlement ratio. Top health insurance companies have very seamless and quick claim settlement procedures that settle valid claims without any hassles.
Check with existing insurer about the super top up facility available or not. If it is, then go for top up or super top up facility with same insurer. There is no such rule that with pre-existing diseases you can’t buy insurance online. Better to have super top up with the insurance company where you have basic plan. Sailesh-In case of health insurance it is claim incurred but not claim settled. Also please tell me if there is any policy which covers maternity expense also and how about if we go for national and united insurance.
The New India Assurance Company Limited
Health insurance purchase may not be a compulsion in India, but it is definitely a requisite. An ideal health insurance policy not only helps an individual strengthen their financial backing, but also maintain their peace of mind in an adverse medical situation. If you too lack health insurance as of now, make sure you analyze your specific medical needs and buy an affordable policy to provide you support at the time of need. Since there are many health insurance companies offering a vast range of health insurance policies with extraordinary coverage features, it would be easy for you to find one.
The Insurance Information Institute suggests homeowners to give all the necessary information needed to the insurance representative assigned to handle your claim. Some people have hospital cover for peace of mind, some people will save on tax. With extras, make sure you’re getting back more than you’re paying for it. An excess is an amount of money you pay out of your pocket towards a hospital visit.
For you to choose the best accident and health insurance, you must compare the insurance plans offered by the main insurers, find the coverages you need most, and, above all, that it fits within your budget. This is what we will show you below by introducing you to the 7 Best Health Insurance Companies in the US. These are health insurance companies that earn millions of dollars a year and are concerned with offering the best health insurance plans and their direct written premiums to their audiences.
Do I Need Private Health Insurance If Im Covered Through My Work?
Additionally, the Gusto team can handle benefits administration and compliance for your business, which means less work on your end. Gusto has great customer service with licensed advisors available to help you choose the right insurance plan for your employees, and the company can handle compliance and benefits administration for you. Aetna was founded in 1853 as a life insurance company and started selling health insurance in 1899. UnitedHealthcare is the largest health insurance company in the U.S. with an extensive provider network.
It has excellent financial strength ratings, and coverage is available in all 50 states. Expatica uses technology such as cookies and scripts to personalize content and ads, provide social media features, and analyze our traffic. Click below to consent to the use of this technology on our website – and don’t worry, we respect your privacy. You can of course change your mind and withdraw your consent at any time, by returning to this site after clearing the cookies on your computer or device. Shyam-It is good as they have in house TPA and standalone company. So continue if your requirement suites according to policy offering.
If these affect you, always make sure you know what your policy covers and that you’re happy with any exclusions. We’re lucky to have the NHS, but there’s no denying that access to private care through health insurance can be reassuring. It’s especially useful if you’re self-employed and need to be treated quickly and at a hospital that’s convenient for you.
Then you can compare quotes from each insurer to see which one offers the best coverage for the price. There are many ways to find life insurance policies that do not require a medical exam. For is oral surgery covered by medical insurance example, some carriers like MetLife sell these services through their affiliations with different financial and alumni groups. It’s important to understand, however, that your rates for no exam life insurance will be higher than traditional insurance because the insurance company is accepting an unverified health risk. The coming together of the Future Group and Generali in 2007, Future Generali India offers a wide and unique range of health insurance plans as demonstrated on its website.
Out-of-network providers, or those without an agreement, might not be covered or will cost the patient more out-of-pocket. A prescription plan is another important ny life insurance companies consideration when looking for the best health insurance. If you need to take medications regularly you’ll want to choose a plan with a good prescription plan.
Age Co is the commercial arm of registered charity Age UK, which was formed by the merger of Age Concern England and Help the Aged. It provides insurance products and financial services for those over 50, including car, home and travel insurance. In health insurance, co-pay refers to the percentage of the claim amount that is borne by the policyholder, and the rest is paid by the insurer. The higher the co-payments, the lesser is the premium amount, and vice versa. Therefore, before buying a health plan, determine whether you are ok with such a clause or not.
Is It Possible To Transfer The Policy From One Insurance Company To Another Without Losing The Renewal Benefits?
3 of the 4 parents are between years of age and have pre-existing hypertension . We do have currently ongoing age old policies from different insurance companies but all individual ones and with not so significant sum assured. Getting each one topped-up may not be as good as to opt instead for a single floater policy. Rajmani-You are going with the insurance which provided by tied with banks. Instead, buy the health insurance from general insurer or standalone health insurance providers. Delaware Life Insurance Company, through its subsidiaries, offers annuity and life insurance products.
General insurance is an umbrella term for policies like travel, home, car and domestic worker insurance. Its main job is to provide financial protection against risks that can happen in everyday life, like getting into a car accident or having your flat robbed. In Singapore, most general insurers let you buy these products without having to go through a financial adviser. In general, FWD, Aviva & Etiqa are the 3 general insurance companies that have consistently received the best scores from us due to their competitive premiums and high quality insurance offerings. In this section, we will take a look at the top health insurance companies which are currently offering health insurance plans in India. Plans by nationality are usually designed for government medical insurance companies in Dubai and other emirates.
In some areas, plans may come in tiers that offer basic coverage or advanced insurance with add-ons. The cost of health insurance for small business should be measured in both dollars and in time. Under the Employer Mandate, the Affordable Care Act requires that all employers with more than 50 employees must offer health insurance that’s affordable. Different companies may sell Medigap plans that have different prices and terms, and each insurance company has an individual reputation you may want to consider. Insurance companies price risk differently, which means some may be more lenient than others when it comes to certain risk factors. In general, long-term care insurers will pay special attention to your medical history and any family history of debilitating illness.
You have a few minor health issues such as being overweight or have high blood pressure and cholesterol. Your risk category is the biggest determinant of how much premiums you will pay for insurance. Some providers might set the limit higher or lower than five the best auto insurance companies years though, so always read your policy documents carefully and compare your options before buying. The higher your excess amount, the lower your premium Is likely to be. There’s no point in paying a cheaper premium if you then can’t afford to make a claim.
Contrary to popular belief, health insurance companies do offer coverage to smokers albeit with different terms and conditions as compared to non-smokers. Do keep in mind that being a smoker may force you to avail health insurance at a higher premium. However, this must not deter you from availing health insurance as smokers are more prone to lifestyle diseases than non-smokers. Health insurance provides financial protection in times of medical emergencies. Health insurance offers cashless treatment across network of hospitals in Pakistan which are on the panel of insurance companies and covers pre and post hospitalization expenses and also provides lab discounts. Our agents are experts at customizing a life policy to fit your needs and budget.
Most term life insurance policies don’t provide you additional benefits and are quite expensive at this age. When working with an independent agency, you will be working with someone who is on your side, not a specific insurance company. A deductible is the amount you pay for covered health services before insurance begins to pay expenses. For instance, if you have a $2,000 deductible, you will pay for your own medical costs out-of-pocket until you reach $2,000, after which insurance pays all costs other than copayment or coinsurance. Many plans pay for certain services, like annual checkups, before you’ve met your deductible.
Accidental death and dismemberment insurance has a life insurance payout only for accidental deaths, such as a car crash or accidental fall. Be aware that your life insurance quote may not reflect what you’ll actually end up paying over the years to keep the policy. Does my employer offer coverage or will I need to shop the Health Insurance Marketplace? A workplace plan, if offered, may be more affordable than buying a private plan. In 2020, Aetna Medicare Advantage plans were made available in 264 new counties across the country, providing millions more Medicare beneficiaries access to an Aetna plan. The insurer also sells Medicare supplement plans and prescription drug plans in most U.S. markets as well as a combination dental, vision, and hearing supplemental Medicare product in many states.
HCSC affiliates and subsidiaries include the Dearborn Group, Medecision and Dental Network of America. HCSC, along with its subsidiaries offers group life, disability and dental solutions, as well as a wide range of other individual solutions. As of December 31, 2020, the company had approximately 17 million members in medical benefit plans, as well as approximately 5 million members in specialty products.
This basic coverage typically amounts to a year or two’s worth of pay. In some cases, you can purchase additional coverage through the employer’s broker. Founded in the early 1900s, Lincoln Financial is an A+ rated company that is ranked in the Fortune 250 list of companies.
Users receive a high-quality blood glucose meter, testing supplies, and access to the mySugr app and platform. One of the biggest players in the field, Fitbit announced that it has formed a partnership with Google. The collaboration will better enable Fitbit users to share their data with healthcare providers.
RAghu-You can go ahead if plan features matching and also premium is affordable to you. Rahul-But sole AIM of all insurers is to insure the person who is not prone to any expenses in future as it is loss to their business. I selected two PSU which are cost effective PNB -oriental and Andhra bank arogadhaan and only confused with shall i go for family floater for parents or family floater for parents and spouse and me. You are free to decide my EXPERIENCE and RESEARCH at your own thinking. Raj-Ideal cover depends on your premium paying capacity, the city you live in and the health issues you are facing. Kunal-It is hard to suggest whether your new insurer will consider this as permanent exclusion or provide some relief of clause with limitation.
Their insurance offerings include car, home, renters, motorcycle, boat, RV, life insurance and more. In the area of auto insurance, they provide a price that can fit your budget, recommended insurance package, savings, discounts, rewards and more. They offer a range of financial strategies and solutions to help their clients every step of the way. MassMutual provides life insurance, annuity, retirement savings, disability income insurance, long-term care, workplace benefits, wealth management and more. I recommend a critical care benefit, as well, from providers like Colonial. A couple didn’t make the list that function on rent traditional networks.
According to our calculations, the average annual extras premium for a single person in Australia is about $630, and the average benefit is only $435. As you get older, your health needs can change so it’s vital to check you’ve got the right policy to cover them. If you do not see a provider listed above that you are considering coverage from, please feel free to ask us about it as we may still be able to provide information on their plans. IRDAI or its officials do not involve in activities like sale of any kind of insurance or financial products nor invest premiums. Whether you’re looking for the best insurance companies in California or elsewhere, you should be able to find the answer here.
Elevate Health Plans are individual products offered by DHMP to help you protect your health and the health of your family. All Elevate providers hold faculty appointments at the University of Colorado School of Medicine and more than 85% are board certified in their field. As a health insurance carrier, we take your health personally.
Family health insurance plan is a perfect combination of affordability and wider coverage. With this plan, it is easier and cheaper to cover the entire family instead of purchasing separate medical insurance policies for each family member. But, it may restrict the number of policyholders to one spouse and a specified number of children.
You also have to allow employees to cover their dependent children until they are 26, even if they don’t live at home. You can just be covered for hospital-related care or additional options such as out-patient care, dental & repatriation. Maternity care is available after a waiting period with the Premier plan.
This post contains references to products from one or more of our advertisers. We may receive compensation when you click on links to those products. For an explanation of our Advertising Policy, visit this page. If your claim doesn’t pan out as you expect, or you feel that your insurer has treated you unfairly, don’t be afraid to complain. Start by speaking to your GP about your condition as you normally would. There are two main types of referral; an open referral, where your GP doesn’t address the letter to a specific consultant, or named referral, where a specialist is listed on the letter.
They also were the first healthcare carrier to include benefits for heart transplants and general catastrophic coverage. Private individual policies were previously available in 22 states including most Midwestern, Central plains and Western areas. However, in California and most of the Northwest , policies were not offered. Depending upon future legislation, it’s possible that private medical plans may be offered in the future. Kaiser Foundation Health Plan And Hospitals is a non-profit entity and works with Permanente Medical Groups. Although coverage is only offered in the District Of Columbia and eight additional states, about 12 million persons receive services and/or benefits.
In Atlanta, the deductible options for the same tiered policies range from $0 to $3,500. Plans available include HMO, PPO, EPO, POS, Medicare, FSAs, and HSAs, but exact plans will vary by state. BCBS sells coverage in all 50 states and Washington, D.C., and currently serves over 107 million members. Aetna is our choice for the best small business health savings accounts due to their generous benefits and simplicity. Employees can withdraw funds at any time using an Aetna HSA debit card or check to pay for qualifying medical expenses, like health plan deductibles, over-the-counter medications, LASIK surgery, and more. Plus, employees can use money from their HSA to cover COBRA premiums if they become unemployed.
The use of new reimbursement models of HRAs put the employer’s reimbursements onnearly the same tax playing field as traditional small group plans, but without all the hassles and requirements. Before, a big advantage for group plans was that they were deductible expenses for employers insurance companies ct and were taken out of employee paychecks on a pre-tax basis. With an HRA, employers can make reimbursements without having to pay payroll taxes and employees don’t have to recognize income tax. In addition, reimbursements made by the company count as a tax deduction.
You have to choose a policy based on various factors such as sum insured, co-pay, sub-limit clauses and network hospitals, and not just about quoting low premiums. Your health plan should cover hospitalization expenses for critical illnesses also. There should be no “claim loading” in case you or your family are diagnosed with a critical illness. Claim loading is a feature in which the insurance company can keep increasing your premiums year on year if you are diagnosed with a critical illness. Health insurance is an essential need for each individual because all of us deserve better and optimum health benefits at the time when you need it the most. Considering this, Orient Insurance Company offers family and individual health care, which meets the financial and medical needs and expectations for everyone.
Just be aware that the cost of your premium will rise as you get older and may increase if you actually make a claim, so you might not see a reduction in reality. Hospital location– certain hospitals, like those in London and other major cities, may charge more, so your postcode could have an effect on policy price. It’s worth considering how far you’re realistically willing to travel to receive treatment.
— Most Popular (@_mostpopular) December 19, 2011
Below is a guide to 10 Medicare Supplement Insurance companies to help you choose the best one for your needs. Long-term care insurance can be an excellent tool for protecting your assets and setting you up to live as independently as possible after retirement. According to data from the Administration on Aging, on average, women outlive men by about five years. Since the odds of a woman making a claim are higher than those of a man, premiums for women tend to be more expensive. The highest percentages of applicants whose requests for coverage were denied were those in the 60 to 79 age bracket. Ultimately, the choice to purchase a stand-alone policy or a hybrid one will depend on your personal and financial goals.
Popular Health Insurance Companies – Affordable Medical Insurance Companies http://t.co/NrxxjyUv
— Theodore Neish (@TheodoreNeish62) September 24, 2011
It’s important to note short-term health insurance is not required to comply with certain federal market requirements for health insurance like Affordable Care Act coverage. Plans may also have pre-existing limitations that may prevent coverage from applying to medical conditions that existed prior to enrollment. Independence Blue Cross is Southeastern Pennsylvania’s biggest provider of medical coverage for individuals and businesses. However, they aren’t limited to covering persons in the Pa area since they insure more than eight million persons in 25 states.
CareSource also offers private health insurance plans on the Health Insurance Marketplace, including Medicare Advantage and MyCare Ohio plans. CareSource has more than 1.9 million members across five states. The company employs about 3,800 people and is considered a nonprofit organization. With increasing instances of hospitalization and rising medical expenses, it has become troublesome for middle-class people. Health insurance provides the much-needed cushion and helps one manage one’s finance in the moment of crisis.
And with the vast majority of Costco employees participating in a health or retirement plan, its benefits are pretty popular, although all are subject to change or discontinuation at Costco’s discretion. On the first day of the month following their hire date, qualifying Allegis Group employees are eligible for medical, dental, and vision coverage paid for through employee paycheck contributions. It’s largely because small businesses aren’t required to provide employer-sponsored health coverage under the Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act , popularly known as the Affordable Care Act or Obamacare.
You might not think of Apple when you think of health and wellness, but they want you to. Samsung collaborates with a growing list of partners to expand the platform, and offers a complete set of SDKs for app and web development. Microsoft provides HealthVault solutions for both patient and healthcare providers. Digital health-management companies help users to manage their own health. The digital healthcare ecosystem must include well-designed and effective apps like mySugr, if self-managed healthcare is going to be more than a buzzword. This Australian 2012 startup offers an app-based solution for monitoring blood glucose levels.
Before the ACA, individual health insurance was underwritten in nearly every state, including Utah. This meant that pre-existing conditions could prevent an applicant from obtaining a policy, or could result in higher premiums or pre-existing condition exclusions. Utah Insurance Department— Licenses and regulates health insurance companies, brokers, and agents. Can provide information and assistance to consumers with a wide range of health insurance questions and complaints.
They are located in Schenectady NY but only offer insurance plans in New York, Vermont and New Hampshire. The company boasts more than 500,000 health care providers and if you live in New York State, you will not have trouble finding a doctor or hospital in their network. MVP offers health plans to small businesses, groups and individuals.
Due to this issue, in case of claim, it will be NOT cashless …… So paying from self pocket, gathering bills, delivering them. They dont seem to have any collection officer; the feature which I feel will be very helpful , in case of insured patient are elderly & live alone. I kind of confused between tata mediprime & Apollo restore…I m thinking abt policy which is help as I advance in age.
If I opt not to have the surgery I can continue with the shots. Compare rates side by side with plans & carriers available in your area. Enter your zip code to pull plan options available in your area. You can use this independent agent matching tool to find the best insurance solution in your area. Provide some details about what you’re looking for, and the tool will recommend the best agents for you. Any information you provide will be sent only to the agent you pick.
Today, the market is bombarded with 29 health insurance companies, each having a wide range of plans and benefits. Now, the question arises- which insurance company should you trust? Kaiser Permanente is one of the best insurance companies around, and the company has received rewards for how good their customer service is. Kaiser Permanente’s overall customer satisfaction rating is 84 out of 100, with their claims processing rates at 89 out of 100.
There’s a lot of information to take in, and it isn’t always the easiest to understand. That’s part of the reason why over 44 million of Americans are under-insured, or not insured at all. BCBS is also available in every state, which means there’s a variety of provider networks to choose from. Anthem offers wide coverage that has the ability to be used in multiple states.
So minimum have around Rs.3,00,000 but try to increase it in future. I am unable to understand why you want to go for individual plan for yourself and family floater for rest of members. No need to worry, even if you buy through broker there is cashless facility which hospital where you get admitted will co-ordinate with insurance company and will settle claim.
However, in case of any accidental hospitalization related claims, there is no initial waiting period and your policy can be used at any time post purchasing your policy. So thesetwo reasons make taking a Health Insurance early in life, advantageous. When you’re not too happy with your current health insurer and want to switch without having to lose out on waiting periods. Thanks to digital friendly processes, buying a health insurance online means it is zero touch and contactless as compared to physically filling in forms or visiting an agent.
For example, some advertisers pay us to display ads, others pay us when you click on certain links, and others pay us when you submit your information to request a quote or other offer details. CNET’s compensation is never tied to whether you purchase an insurance product. Enter your Email ID and City and then click on the ‘Submit and View Quotes’ button. Select an insurance policy from several quotes on your screen as per your budget and other requirements. If you want to add family members along with yourself in the policy, then add them and select their age.
- This plan comes with a monthly premium based on the coverage amount.
- We also found that some states have an online quote tool, while others require you to get a quote through an agent.
- Part D coverage is offered by SilverScript, and three PDP plans are offered.
- State Farm is currently on the Fortune 500 list of largest companies.
- Also, several physician groups opposed the Aetna-Humana merger, along with the Cigna-Anthem merger.
Switching from traditional health insurance to a health sharing plan is always an option. As members of a non-insurance health care sharing ministry, members have an exemption from the federal requirement that they must have insurance or pay a penalty tax. CHM is a nonprofit health cost-sharing ministry in which Christians share each other’s medical bills.
Specific information about premiums, deductibles, and co-payments along with the details of each plan available in each state can be found by selecting your state on the Ambetter website. When it comes to term life vs. whole life insurance, the better choice depends on your specific goals. For example, if you’re looking for life insurance protection for only a certain number of years to cover a financial concern , term life insurance is likely the best fit. Term life insurance is a policy where you choose the length of coverage, such as 10, 15, 20 or 30 years. If you die within that term, your beneficiary will receive the death benefit. Pacific Life is currently the subject of a lawsuit regarding the reliability of policy illustrations for some of its newer indexed universal life insurance policies.
Some of its biggest brand name affiliated companies include Blue Cross, Blue Cross Blue Shield , Empire Blue Cross, Anthem, Amerigroup, UniCare and CareMore. Additional companies that offer related services include DeCare Dental, Golden West Dental, Resolution Health, Meridian Resource Company, and National Government Services. Anthem is also involved in low-income household coverage, including Medicaid and State Children’s Health Insurance programs . One of the most recent major acquisitions was Health Sun, an integrated Medicare Advantage Health Plan in Florida. Federal Employee Program coverage is offered to US Government workers and dependents. Because of the huge nationwide provider network, customers are often able to take advantage of services that are “repriced” due to contractual agreements.
The lack of nationwide coverage could be a drawback for some people, even if they live within the coverage area and Kaiser Permanente is definitely one of the more localized health insurance providers. The fact that customers will be serviced by the local healthcare partner does mean that experiences can vary significantly depending upon which state they live in. This makes it our top pick when it comes to best health insurance providers. The expansive nature of the Blue Cross Blue Shield network works both for and against the company. There are several things you’ll need to consider, not least of which is the cost involved. While opting for affordable health insurance will always be important, you’ll want to strike the right balance between value and coverage, ensuring you’ve got the ideal plan to suit.
Parents must register their child with an insurance company within four months of their birth. UnitedHealth Group is a health insurance company that also provides data analytics and consulting services to healthcare providers, as well as pharmacy care services. Its principal divisions include UnitedHealthcare, OptumHealth, OptumInsight, and OptumRx. If you find yourself unable to remember the last time you were in a doctor’s office and think you don’t need health insurance, think again. You should definitely have health insurance, and there are plans that are cost effective for healthy people. For example, you can opt for a high deductible health insurance plan – you pay more for things like doctor visits, but you pay less overall for your health insurance plan.
They offer comprehensive coverage for attractive premiums and can be a good match for any kind of driver. Religare Health Insurance is the health insurance arm of Religare Enterprises Limited. The Health Insurance Company provides specific health insurances to individuals as well as corporate employees.